Make sure you, the victim and any bystanders are safe.


Gently shake the shoulders and ask loudly "Can you hear me? Can you open your eyes?"
If victim responds:
    -leave them in the position you found them provided there is no further danger.
    -try to find out what is wrong and get help if needed.
    -re-assess regularly
If victim does not respond:
    Shout for help, then...


Turn victim on to their back and open the airway using head tilt and chin lift:
    -place your hand on their forehead and gently tilt the head back
    -with your fingertips on the point of their chin, lift the chin to open the airway


Keeping the airway open look listen and feel for normal breathing. Look listen and feel for no more than 10 seconds. If you have any doubt whether breathing is normal act as if it is not normal.

If victim is breathing normally:

If victim is not breathing normally:


Ask someone to call for an ambulance or, if you are on your own, do this yourself; you may need to leave the victim.
Start chest compression as follows:

Combine chest compression with rescue breaths.

Stop to recheck the victim only if they start breathing normally; otherwise do not interrupt resuscitation.

If your rescue breaths do not make the chest rise as in normal breathing, then before your next attempt:

If there is more than one rescuer present, another should take over CPR about every 2 min to prevent fatigue. Ensure the minimum of delay during the changeover of rescuers.

Chest-compression-only CPR.

Continue resuscitation until:

Recovery position

There are several variations of the recovery position, each with its own advantages. No single position is perfect for all victims. The position should be stable, near a true lateral position with the head dependent, and with no pressure on the chest to impair breathing.

The Resuscitation Council (UK) recommends this sequence of actions to place a victim in the recovery position:

If the victim has to be kept in the recovery position for more than 30 minutes turn them to the opposite side to relieve the pressure on the lower arm.

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